What is Internet Protocol?
The Internet Protocol is the principal communications protocol used in exchanging data packets across an internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite.
Responsible in routing packets across network boundaries. And it is also the primary protocol that establishes the Internet.
IP is the primary protocol in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite and has the task of delivering datagrams from the source host to the destination host solely based on their address also known as IP Address. For this purpose, IP defines addressing methods and structures for datagram encapsulation or packet encapsulation.
Historically, IP was the connectionless datagram service in the original Transmission Control Program introduced by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in 1974, the other being the connection-oriented Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The Internet Protocol Suite is therefore often referred to as TCP/IP.
The first major version of IP, now referred to as Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) is the widely used protocol of the Internet, although the successor, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is in active, growing deployment worldwide.
Although the basic applications and guidelines that make the Internet possible had existed for almost two decades, the network did not gain a public face and fame until the early 1990s.
On 6 August 1991, CERN (Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire ), a pan-European organization for particle research, publicized the new World Wide Web project. The Web was invented by British scientist Sir Tim Berners-Lee in 1989.
Sir Tim Berners-Lee created a browser-editor with the goal of developing a tool to make the Web a creative space to share and edit information and build a common hypertext.
FIRST WEB BROWSER
The first web browser was developed by National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois and they named it Mosaic. The screenshot of the first browser is shown below.
credits to : NCSA Image Archive / NCSA /University of Illinois.
FIRST WEB SERVER
The first Web Server in the world was the Next Computer that was used by Sir Tim Berners-Lee in developing and editing the first HTML Documents.
credits to : en.wikepedia.org / User:Aavindraa / Under GNU Public License V.1.2
Before 1990’s where Sir Tim Berners-Lee invented the Interactive Internet, Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML) and the World Wide Web (WWW), there is already internet…
The early Internet was used by computer experts, engineers, scientists, and librarians. There was nothing friendly about it. There were no home or office personal computers in those days, and anyone who used it, whether a computer professional or an engineer or scientist or librarian, had to learn to use a very complex system.
The Internet was a result in visionary thinking of people in 1960’s who saw great potential value in allowing computers to share information on research and development in scientific and military fields.
Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT),first proposed the global network of computers in 1962.He moved out to Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in late 1962 to head the work to develop it.
Leonard Klienrock of MIT and ULCA later developed the theory of packet switching, which is the basis of Internet connections.
Later in 1965, Lawrence Roberts of MIT connected a Massachusetts computer with a California computer through dial-up lines. It showed the effect of wide area networking (WAN), but it also showed that the telephone line is inadequate.
One year after the connection of dial-up lines, Kleinrock’s packet switching theory was confirmed. Roberts move over to DARPA and developed his plan for ARPANET.
The Internet, then known as ARPANET, was brought online in 1969 under a contract let by the renamed Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA).
E-mail was adapted for ARPANET by Ray Tomlinson of BBN in 1972. He picked the @ symbol from the available symbols on his teletype to link the username and address.
The telnet protocol, enabling logging on to a remote computer, was published as a Request for Comments (RFC) in 1972. RFC’s are a means of sharing developmental work throughout community or forums in our years…
The ftp (file transfer) protocol, enabling file transfers between Internet sites, was published as an RFC in 1973, and from then on RFC’s were available electronically to anyone who had use of the ftp protocol.
The Internet matured in the 70’s as a result of the TCP/IP architecture first proposed by Bob Kahn.
The Unix to Unix Copy Protocol (UUCP) was invented in 1978 at Bell Labs. Usenet was started in 1979 based on UUCP.
Similarly, BITNET (Because It’s Time Network) connected IBM mainframes around the educational community and the world to provide mail services beginning in 1981.
In 1986, the National Science Foundation funded NSFNet as a cross country 56 Kbps backbone for the Internet.
As the commands for E-mail, Telnet, and FTP were standardized, it became a lot easier for non-technical people to learn to use the nets.